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Parallel Runway Approaches and Departures – Basic Understanding

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Dependent approaches:(Simultaneous parallel approaches)

Allow aircraft to approach parallel runways, but controllers must ensure a minimum separation from aircraft on the adjacent approach path (diagonal spacing) in addition to maintaining standard separation behind aircraft on the same approach path (in-trail spacing). Aircraft may not pass or be passed once they are established on their approaches.

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Independent parallel approaches:

Simultaneous approaches to parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima are not prescribed between aircraft using adjacent ILS.

Simultaneous instrument departure procedures and instrument approach procedures in the same direction on parallel runways. The nominal tracks of the departure procedures and of the missed approach procedures must diverge by at least 30° as soon as practicable.

There are three sorts of operations:

1) Segregated.

2) Semi-mixed.

3) Mixed.

 

Segregated Operations

– One runway is used for approaches.

– The other one is used for departures.

***Semi-mixed Operations

– One runway is used for approaches and departures.

– The other one is used for either approaches or departures.

Mixed Operations

– Simultaneous parallel approaches with departures interspersed on both runways.

Special Note

Based on (ICAO doc9157) Aerodrome Design Manuel Part 1 Runway, the minimum distance between center lines of 2 parallel (or near-parallel) runways:

1) For Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) operation:

*210m for category 3(runway length=1200m-1800m) and category 4(runway length>1800m)

*150m for category 2(runway length=800m-1200m)

*120m for category 1(runway length<800m)

2) Instrument flight Condition (IMC) operation:

*1035m for independent parallel approaches (radar separation minima between aircraft and adjacent centerline is not prescribed)

*915m for independent parallel approaches (radar separation minima between aircraft and adjacent centerline is prescribed)

*760m for independent parallel departures or Segregated parallel operations (one exclusive for departure and another for landing) PS: It can be reduced by 30m for each 150m arrival runways is staggered toward arrival aircraft down to 300m between the centerline of two runways, and vice versa (but no maximum)

When two runways are closer than the regulations above, only one can be “operated” at the same time (eg: LGW). Even though only one of the parallel runway would be operated at the same time, the separation of the runway have to follow the “Runway strip rule”, which is:

*75m each side from the center lines for category 3/4

*40m each side for category 2

*30m each side for category 1

Therefore minimum distance of two parallel runways is the sum of the strips, ie: minimum distance of two parallel 4E/F runways is 75+75=150 m from their center lines.

(The above is a global standard which represents the minimum requirement of the runway, other aviation authorities such as FAA in the US may have a stricter standard.)

 

Aircraft Approach Classification and Aerodrome Reference Code Basics You need to know.

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Aircraft Approach Classification and Aerodrome Reference Code Basics

This is a compiled write-up by Seeshas Ro, about the basics of Aircraft Approach Classification and Aerodrome Reference Code You need to Know as a Fight Student.

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For approach, aircraft are classified in categories: A, B, C, D, and E. The criteria are taken into consideration for the classification of airplanes by categories is the indicated airspeed at threshold (VAT) in landing configuration at the maximum certified landing weight.

 

These categories are as follows: (Speed)

Category A: Speed less than 91 knots

Category B: Speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots

Category C: Speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots

Category D: Speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots

Category E: Speed 166 knots or more

There are some who would argue that maximum certificated weight only applies to 1.3VSO based on the placement of a comma in the regulation. The debate raged on for decades but the FAA finally provided some clarity in 2013.

*Note

ICAO distinguishes approaches operations based on DH between ‘Type A’ (DH >= 250 ft) and ‘Type B’ (DH < 250 ft), which are further divided into subcategories. From the Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft Part I:

  1. a) Type A: a minimum descent height or decision height at or above 75 m (250 ft); and

 

  1. b) Type B: a decision height below 75 m (250 ft). Type B instrument approach operations are categorized as:

 

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Category I (CAT I): a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m.

Category II (CAT II): a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a runway visual range not less than 300 m.

Category IIIA (CAT IIIA): a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft) or no decision height and a runway visual range not less than 175 m.

Category IIIB (CAT IIIB): a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft) or no decision height and a runway visual range of fewer than 175 m but not less than 50 m.

Category IIIC (CAT IIIC): no decision height and no runway visual range limitations.

 

Instrument approach procedures are further classified as follows:

1) Non-precision approach (NPA) procedure. An instrument approach procedure designed for 2D instrument approach operations Type-A.

2) Approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV). Performance-based Navigation (PBN) instrument approach procedure designed for 3D instrument approach operations Type-A.

3) Precision approach (PA) procedure. An instrument approach procedure based on navigation systems (ILS, MLS, GLS, and SBAS CAT I) designed for 3D instrument approach operations Type A or B.

 

For more information please refer to sources give, sources give will access you more information

Boldmethod 

ICAO (pdf)

 

Flight Information(pdf)

 

Faa.gov(pdf)

Aviationchef

Aviation Services Australia

 

 

Aerodrome Reference Code  (Basic)

The ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code is a two-part categorization of aircraft types which simplifies the process of establishing whether a particular aircraft is able to use a particular aerodrome.

It is included in ICAO Annex 14. It has two ‘elements’, the first is a numeric code based on the Reference Field Length for which there are four categories and the second is letter code based on a combination of aircraft wingspan and outer main gear wheel span.

**Special Brief

According to ICAO Annex 14 Volume 1 – or national implementation thereof, as well as EASA regulations for Airports in Europe – each Aerodrome is assigned an “Aerodrome Reference Code”. As per the 8th edition of Annex 14, such a reference code is based on critical aircraft’s “Reference Field Length” (first code number) and aircraft wingspan (second code letter). For instance, an Aerodrome with a reference code 4E can accommodate aircraft with a “Reference Field Length” of 1800m and above and a wingspan up to 65m.

 

Sources:

Aviation Safety Wiki

Faa Documentary

 

Virtual instruction for all students during the Covid-19 lock-down period at Eagle Air

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Virtual instruction for all students during the Covid-19 lock-down period at Eagle Air

Due to the current pandemic which led to the total shut-down of states in South Africa, Eagle Air one of the best out-standing flight schools in South Africa will begin transitioning to virtual instruction for all our students during this lockdown period.

 

How is this possible?

Your Flight Instructor will schedule briefings with you on the Eagle Air new online system. All you need is a good internet connection with a webcam, a tablet, or even your smartphone. Eagle Air remains committed to providing quality educational opportunities for all its students.

The Flight school has successfully implementing virtual briefings, instruction, and ground school on Zoom over the last 3 weeks. They also had an aviation software package custom made and designed for us to interface with all aspects of aviation.

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What do you need as a student to participate?

Basically, striving towards a remote and paperless system, with the obvious exclusion of certain documentation required by the SACAA. All that is required is a good internet connection with a webcam, a tablet, or a smartphone.

Training From Home

Eagle Air remains committed to providing quality educational opportunities for all our students, despite the level of their training required. Obviously, this is done from the homes of instructors and students. With all instructors and students being at home, we attempt to prevent fruitless expenditure by parents having to pay for accommodation and subsistence whilst pilots are required to stay home during the lockdown caused by the coronavirus.

About Eagle air

Eagle Air is one elite flight school with students all over Africa, Asia. and South America so the Answer is no. Eagle Air is an international flight school with open arms to accept students from all works of life. With Eagle Air, you are exposed to meet students from other parts of the globe.

Location

Eagle Air is located at Wonderboom National Airport Pretoria South Africa.

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